Exercise

On 4th April 2022, 06:29 a.m., a massive earthquake hits Bosnia and Herzegovina with the epicentre located close to the village of Pazarić. The quake had the strength of 6.9 Richter with a depth of 21 km. The population centres Sarajevo and Mostar are heavily affected with major destruction to buildings and infrastructure. Local teams start deploying to the most affected areas.

The national CP system assesses the situation and define the needs. The same day, the Government of BiH requests assistance from the UPCM. The Resident Coordinator of the United Nations in country, H.E. Ms. Mac Donald, offers the support of the UN System and requests an UNDAC Team in support of her work. Next day, a subsequent earthquake hits the Republic of Albania with the village of Rubik as the epicentre. The quake (6.4 Richter, depth 14km) creates strong damages in the Quark of Lezha and the neighbouring city of Shkodra.

The Host Nation Support Systems are getting activated, RDC’s established. The EUCPT arrives on 5th April evening in Sarajevo and starts the coordination of incoming assistance. An assessment of potential sides for the base of operation (BoO) and USAR sites take place. During the day, decision is taken to integrate the UNDAC experts into the UPCM Team. Albania requests UPCM support and asks the UN RC to provide UNDAC support. Until 6th May evening, international and national USAR teams rescue more than 40 persons from destroyed buildings in both countries. UN and EU are coordinating on a global level while international assistance is arriving to both countries. The authorities in Montenegro and Croatia are actively engaged as transiting countries.

UN and EU are over the next day’s supporting each other in their respective roles. Specialists from the EU modules are supporting the local rescue forces with specialized knowledge and capacity. Especially in the urban environment of Sarajevo, specialized teams are needed: Key challenges can be found in the collapse of a high-rised hotel complex from the Tito area at Mount Igman, in the coordination of teams from all over the world coming from two different border crossing and the international airport, the destruction of a factory or the rescue in the narrow streets of the old town area of the city.

Given the convergence of actors, a High-level UN-EU meeting takes place in Sarajevo. Camp Coordination and Camp Management /CCCM assessment as well as USAR assessments are planned, Coordination of all countries and arrival of first relief items from EU, partly for BiH and partly for ALB.

At the same time, the teams have to organize and provide shelter to the large number of persons and have to analyse if a former military site can be transferred into the core of an IDP hosting facility.

in the course of 6th May, information on a spreading disease will be provided. National and International actors must discuss what this will mean for the response. On 7th, May, Government will inform about regulations to stop the spread of the disease, and the response actors need to adapt. After a time jump (T+8) teams have to define how to support the relief phase. Tasks to be given “after the rubble”. On Thursday, the deployment to the Exit point will be simulated by a transfer to Jahorina where the exercise will end, and the hot wash up will take place. On Friday, all teams and EXCON to redeploy from there.

The scenario provides for a range of diverse certification possibilities, e.g. TAST or mountain rescue modules.

Aim of this exercise: The aim of the TTX is to conduct a discussion-based exercise, in which the planned FSX scenario will be simulated and discussed. All relevant existing plans, documents, maps, guidelines etc. can be used and discussed, possible problems and connected solutions identified and at the end the ground for an efficient simulated FSX should be set.

Objectives of this exercise:

  1. Discuss the possible FSX scenario – Earthquake and cascading effects, including outbreak of a pandemic and lock down during the exercise
  2. Discuss the activation of the EUCPM (Alert, requesting and offering relief teams and relief goods)
  3. Discuss EU Host Nation Support Guidelines – procedures of sending states, transiting states and hosting/receiving states – what changes in a pandemic environment – for the guidelines.
  4. Discuss cooperation with LEMA, EU Delegation on site, UN OCHA ERCC and EU ERCC, UN Resident Coordinator, UNDAC, etc.
  5. Discuss involvement and cooperation of UNHAS/WFP, EUFOR in terms of transport
  6. Discuss activation and support by Copernicus and UNITAR/UNOSAT
  7. Strategize on supporting most vulnerable groups (PWSN)
  8. Identification of cascading effects and particularities in urban areas
  9. Discuss involvement of modules, ECPP and ResEU in such a disaster
  10. Discuss an exit strategy and hand over / take over procedures for mission end
  11. Discuss trilateral cooperation of ALB, BiH and MNE

Table Top Exercise TTX

 

This TTX should support the planning process for the final FSX by discussing first a possible scenario with all in the FSX involved partners – from crisis response managers, some regional experts and practitioners from the three countries, secondly find out existing procedures and challenges for a real mission case according to the scenario and try to find solutions for identified problems and challenges.

 

These could be e.g. cooperation problems identified at local, national, regional and international level, missing procedures in place (e.g. HNS Guidelines), problems with communication/language, etc. The TTX will be conducted in MNE and should provide the possibility to deepen their knowledge in the existing EU Civil Protection system and support the planning process for the FSX.

For the TTX the tasks of EXCON will be split into different cells – like EUCPT, LEMA, On Site Commanders, ERCC, Situation overview, Management, Logistic Support, Trainer per Team and manned by the partners/subcontractors.

Table Top Exercise TTX

Aim of this exercise: The aim of the CPX is to conduct a functional exercise, in which the actual response and deployment to an affected country will be simulated. Special attention is given to the cooperation between UN / EU / the states of the consortium and ALB and MNE. One of the challenges will be the cooperation between ERCC’s of UN and EU as well as the Emergency Operation Centres of ALB, BiH and MNE as it is in real missions. The questions what changes need to be made to normal procedures in times of a pandemic will also be raised here with a specific focus on support for operational SOP adaption.

Objectives of this exercise:

  1. Exercise the possible FSX scenario – Earthquake and cascading effects, including outbreak of a pandemic and lock down during the exercise in class
  2. Simulate the activation of the EUCPM (Alert, requesting and offering relief teams and relief goods)
  3. Include and test procedures like the EU Host Nation Support Guidelines – procedures of sending states, transiting states and hosting/receiving states
  4. Experience the cooperation with LEMA, EU Delegation on site, UN OCHA ERCC and EU ERCC, UN Resident Coordinator, UNDAC, etc.
  5. Involve other relevant organisations like UNHAS/WFP, EUFOR in terms of transport
  6. Experience activation and support by Copernicus and UNITAR/UNOSAT
  7. Involve EU modules, ECPP and rescEU in such a scenario
  8. Prepare an exit strategy and hand over / take over procedures for mission end
  9. Experience trilateral cooperation of ALB, BiH and MNE

Comand Post Exercise CPX

 

During the CPX the discussed scenario of the TTX is simulated to prepare for the FSX. All procedures and plans which were already discussed in the TTX will now be implemented in this CPX. The linkages between the different operation centres (ERCC, HQ of organisations/Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) will be checked and possible problems noted and tried to find solutions till the FSX. The EUCPT will be activated and virtually deployed on site to start their operation on site as in real missions. Injects will support a realistic scenario and tasks for them as well as the other involved entities, like UN ERCC, UNDAC, modules, ECPP, rescEU, IOM, EUFOR etc. EXCON will start with the whole mission cycle to test procedures (like alert, deployment, work on site, meetings, etc) including HQs and EOCs as well as relevant organisations and support tools in place, e.g. IOM or EUFOR or Copernicus etc.

The CPX will be conducted in ALB and should offer the participants the opportunity to learn or deepen their existing knowledge about EU Civil Protection, it´s procedures and support the planning process for the FSX. For the CPX the tasks of EXCON will be split into different cells – like EUCPT, LEMA, On Site Commanders, ERCC, Situation overview, Management, Logistic Support, Trainer per Team and manned by the partners/subcontractors.

Comand Post Exercise CPX

 
Full Scale Exercise FSX  

Aim of this exercise: To conduct an operations-based exercise with deployment and field response to BiH as the affected country. The scenario is the further developed TTX and CPX scenario with all recommendations included. All existing procedures due to a real mission situation will be tested in the field with involvement of a variety of organisations and agencies which one will meet in the field. All real mission activities of UCP will be included in a 36 hrs exercise under stressful conditions and time pressure.

Objectives of this exercise:

  1. Exercise a possible FSX scenario – Earthquake and cascading effects, including outbreak of a pandemic and Lock down in the field
  2. Activate the EUCPM (Alert, requesting and offering relief teams and relief goods) and deploy an EUCPT on site
  3. Deploy teams from the neighbourhood to BiH to support in the first hours after the event
  4. Deploy an EUCPT, TAST, EU modules, teams from ECCP or RescEU (4 Skeleton teams or other capacities) to BiH
  5. Test all relevant procedures like the EU Host Nation Support Guidelines – information sharing procedures, procedures for assessments and coordination, meetings, incoming relief goods etc.
  6. Experience the cooperation with LEMA, EU Delegation on site, UN OCHA ERCC and EU ERCC, UN Resident Coordinator, UNDAC, etc. in real
  7. Involve other relevant organisations like UNHAS/WFP, EUFOR in terms of transport issues on the ground
  8. Experience activation and support by Copernicus and UNITAR/UNOSAT
  9. Prepare an exit strategy and hand over / take over procedures for mission end
  10. Experience trilateral cooperation of ALB, BiH and MNE

 Full Scale Exercise FSX

 

Due to a real scenario situation the whole process from request for assistance from a country, activation of the EUCPM, deployment of EUCPT, TAST and different (skeleton) teams to BiH will be tested. Teams from the neighbourhood will support the affected country/BiH before the first teams from EU will arrive.

 

EUCPT will support the affected country/LEMA in their response and be a link also to the international teams and community, like to UN and some of its agencies on site as well as EU Delegation, EUFOR etc. Due to prepared injects according to the MEL/MIL the whole mission cycle will be exercised. There will be room for adaptation in the injects so that the exercise could be “participants” driven – depending on their knowledge and performance. After hand-over/ take-over a hot wash up will inform the participated organisations and teams about first findings to improve for real missions.

For the FSX the tasks of the EXCON will be split into different cells– like Management, Logistics, Venue Management, Safety&Security, Press, Situation overview, Role Players, Evaluation and manned by the partners/subcontractors.